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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-February 2018
Volume 38 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-48

Online since Wednesday, February 14, 2018

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Inequality in the immunization schedules of different states of the Same Country: Are we aware? Highly accessed article p. 1
Mitasha Singh, Shailja Sharma, Rajesh Ranjan
With Universal Immunization Programme in India incorporating newer vaccines, the immunization schedule has been changing rapidly, varying from one state to another. The number of diseases being protected against has increased from 6 to 14 in the past few years. The immunization schedules of the states of Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, and Haryana were compared among themselves and also with the schedule recommended by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Variations were observed. The migrants, service providers, and those users switching between private and public sector many a time are affected due to this variation among the immunization schedules.
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Saliva: Newer avenues in the era of molecular biology, diagnostic and prognostic application p. 7
Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Mubeen Khan, Bharat Deosarkar, Soniya Bharat Deosarkar, KV Chalapathi, G Kartheek, B Kartheeki
The salivary fluid has an old history of study, but its physiological importance has only been recognized recently. In the past 50 years, the pace of salivary research has accelerated with the advent of new techniques that illuminated the biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva. The interest in saliva increased, further, with the finding that saliva is filled with hundreds of components that might serve to detect systemic diseases and/or act as an evidence of exposure to various harmful substances as well as provide biomarkers of health and disease. The role of saliva in the diagnosis as well as monitoring of glycemic control has, also, been attracting attention of clinical researchers in recent times although results have been conflicting. To conclude, saliva is a whole, diverse fluid that serves various purposes discussed in detail in the literature. The recent introduction of molecular biology opens up, once again, new vistas and a new search of the role of salivary fluid as a potential diagnostic tool which has an added advantage of being noninvasive. The present review presents such insight into the possible use of salivary fluid as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool for the search of numerous diseases as well as for monitoring the treatment outcomes and assesses prognosis in such varied states of derangements of metabolic functions.
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Glucosamine attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro p. 16
Ching-Long Chen, Yi-Hao Chen, Chang-Min Liang, Ming-Cheng Tai, Jiann-Torng Chen
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glucosamine (GlcN) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced premature senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the cell viability of H2O2-treated human RPE cells by the 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate assay. The effect of GlcN on the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H2O2-treated human RPE cells was examined by the fluorescent dye 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The effect of GlcN on the stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) in H2O2-treated human RPE cells was evaluated by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining. We quantified the effect of GlcN on the protein levels of p21 in H2O2-treated human RPE cells by western blotting. Results: H2O2reduced the cell viability of human RPE cells. H2O2induced the increase of intracellular ROS, whereas GlcN reduced the increase of intracellular ROS due to H2O2treatment in human RPE cells. GlcN reduced the SIPS in H2O2-treated human RPE cells and reduced the increase of the p21 protein level in H2O2-treated human RPE cells. Conclusions: GlcN attenuates the oxidative stress caused by H2O2on the increase of ROS and the induction of SIPS in human RPE cells, at least in part, by suppressing the p21 pathway. These effects may contribute to the GlcN-mediated antioxidative effects in the eye in age-related macular degeneration.
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Plasma hepatic enzymes as biopredictors of type, metastasis, and prognostication of hematological malignancies p. 24
Abdulazeez Adelaja Akinlolu, Bamidele Adewale Salau, Adesina Odewabi, Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu, Ishola Musbau Abdulazeez
Background and Aim: The present study evaluated the levels of some hepatic enzymes in the plasma of Nigerians affected with hematological malignancies, to determine if these enzymes could be established as predictors of possible metastasis to the liver, the degree of severity of the disease or prognostication of hematological malignancies. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven consented subjects with multiple myeloma (n = 4), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 5), Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 6), and chronic lymphoid leukemia (n = 6) as well as control subjects (n = 7) were recruited having gotten the ethical approval from the authorities of the teaching hospitals used for the study. Evaluations of activities of enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatases, alanine and aspartate transaminases, lactate, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases) were carried out in the samples collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: Statistically significant levels of the enzymes were found in chronic hematological malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphoid leukemia. Conclusion: Evaluating the plasma levels of hepatic enzymes in Nigerians affected with hematological malignancies could assist in predicting possible metastasis to the liver, type or the degree of severity of the disease, or prognostication of hematological malignancies affected.
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The role of family bio-social variables in depression in a resource-constrained environment: A cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in Eastern Nigerian p. 29
Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh, Udo Nnorom Orji, Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye, Chukwuneke Valentine Ifedigbo
Background: Depression is a family and public health condition that has negative consequences for the victim, family, friends, and society with significant socio-family dysfunction, especially when it is undiagnosed. Aim: The present study was aimed at determining the role of family bio-social variables in depression among ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in the Eastern Nigerian. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 400 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Family Assessment Device, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Brief Family Relationship Scale. Results: The age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 78 years. There were 40.5% of male and 59.5% of female. The prevalence of depression was 48.5% with the most common pattern being mild depression (32.3%). Depression was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning (P = 0.002), low-acuity family support (P = 0.039), family with least cohesion (P = 0.044), least expressiveness (P = 0.013), and most conflict (P = 0.013). The most significant predictor of depression was unhealthy family functioning (Odds ratio = 3.14 [1.82–3.77]; P = 0.001). Depressed patients who had unhealthy family functioning were three times more likely to experience depressive illness compared to their counterparts who were from healthy functional family. Conclusion: Depression occurred among the study participants and was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning, low family support, least family cohesion and expressiveness and most family conflict. Assessment of family biosocial factors should be part of the reason for encounter during consultation to unravel family variables that positively or negatively influence depression.
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Military Suicide among Taiwanese Soldiers: A Comparative Study p. 38
Yen-Feng Lee, Dong-Sheng Tzeng
Introduction: Military suicide is an important issue; however, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of military suicide in Taiwan. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the suicide data from the Military of National Defense and compared the results year-by-year with the suicide rate given in the national data provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare during 2003–2015 in Taiwan. We also compared the results with the United States army and the Japan Self-Defense Force during 2008–2014. Results: The results showed that military suicide rate among Taiwanese soldiers was significantly lower than the general population (t = 10.89, P < 0.001) and the average suicide rate of the military and the general population was 16.5 ± 1.5 and 8.2 ± 2.2 per 100,000 people, respectively. The results also showed a lower suicide rate among the Taiwanese military personnel (7.2 ± 1.8) compared with the military of America (18.8 ± 2.5) and Japan (36.2 ± 2.6) during 2008–2014. Discussion: Taiwanese soldiers have relatively lower suicide rate compared to the general population in Taiwan. However, military suicide prevention program has to adjust the strategy, which is different from country and culture. We should focus on this issue and build on factors that can help avoid suicide incidents by promoting positive mental health and help-seeking.
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Prevention of bile duct injury in an aberrant right hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A case report and literature review p. 42
Zhi-Wei Su, Guo-Xiu Liao
Cystic duct (CD) variation is challenging for surgeons performing biliary surgery. The misunderstanding of CD variants can lead to iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDIs). We describe a 65-year-old man who presented with a 10-day history of abdominal pain and intermittent fever. He was admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during hospitalization. Intraoperatively, we found that the CD drained into the right hepatic duct rather than directly through the common bile duct, which is a very rare anatomic variation. This unusual case emphasizes the importance of recognizing this CD variation to avoid iatrogenic BDIs. This is particularly valuable for less experienced surgeons.
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Preoperative three-dimensional printing for surgical stabilization of rib fractures p. 46
Wei-Chun Lin, Kuan-Hsun Lin, Hsu-Kai Huang, Tsai-Wang Huang, Ying-Yi Chen
Pulmonary trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with major trauma. Chest wall contusion with rib fracture is very common. Surgical stabilization of rib fracture (SSRF) has traditionally required an exploratory thoracotomy for adequate exposure. Minimally invasive approaches for SSRF are now being developed. However, preoperative localization of rib fractures and intraoperative designing of titanium plates require additional time. We present a novel technique involving three-dimensional printing for promoting SSRF with a minimally invasive approach that is efficient and provides good patient outcomes.
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