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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| January-February  | Volume 34 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 26, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The impact of medical institutions on the treatment decisions and outcome of root-resected molars: A retrospective claims analysis from a representative database
Da-Yo Yuh, Fu-Gong Lin, Wen-Hui Fang, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Lian-Ping Mau, E-Chin Shen, Earl Fu, Yi-Shing Shieh, Ren-Yeong Huang
January-February 2014, 34(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129380  
Background: This study analyzes the prognostic factors affecting the survival rate of root-resected molars by using a representative population-based dataset. Materials and Methods: A total of 635,216 eligible patients were enrolled from a representative cohort composed of one million of Taiwan's population. The tooth-related factors influencing the survival rates of root-resected teeth were examined on 516 molars, in 492 patients. Cox regression was performed to statistically analyze the factors. Results: The overall survival rate for the root-resected molars was 91.7%. Of the analyzed factors with respect to root-resection procedures, whether or not concomitant flap surgery was performed in the medical institutions, the dental arch and tooth location demonstrated a considerable influence on the treatment and decision-making. The main reasons and results of root-resected molars receiving root-resection therapy in hospitals were the periodontal-compromised conditions, whereas, the root-resected molars that received root-resection therapy in private practice clinics were caused by caries/endodontic reasons. After adjusting for other factors, in the outcome of root-resected molars, a higher risk of extraction occurrence was seen in hospitals than in private practice clinics (hazard ratio = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.04 to 3.98; P = 0.039). Conclusions: Of the analyzed prognostic factors, medical institutions significantly affect the treatment decision and survival of root-resected molars. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation, risk assessment, and treatment plan should be executed before the root-resection procedure is performed.
  2 3,793 232
Depression, anxiety, and heart rate variability: A case-control study in Taiwan
Li-Fen Chen, Chuan-Chia Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Terry B. J. Kuo, Yu-Chen Kao, San-Yuan Huang, Hsin-An Chang
January-February 2014, 34(1):9-18
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129383  
Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the results obtained are inconsistent. Little is known about the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders on HRV in MDD patients. Both issues necessitate further investigation. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine unmedicated, physically healthy, MDD patients without comorbidity, 21 MDD patients with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 24 MDD patients with comorbid panic disorder (PD), and 81 matched controls were recruited. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale are employed to assess the severity of depression and anxiety, respectively. The cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring the HRV parameters. The frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. Results: MDD patients without comorbidity had lower high-frequency (HF)-HRV (which reflected vagal control of HRV) than controls. Any comorbid anxiety disorder (GAD or PD) was associated with significantly faster heart rates, relative to the controls, and caused greater reductions in HF-HRV among MDD patients. MDD participants with comorbid GAD displayed the greatest reductions in HF-HRV, relative to controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of both depression and anxiety were significantly associated with the mean R wave to R wave (R-R) intervals, variance, low-frequency (LF)-HRV, and HF-HRV. Conclusion: The present results show decreased HRV in MDD patients, suggesting that reduction in HRV is a psychophysiological marker of MDD. MDD patients with comorbid GAD had the greatest reductions in HRV. Further investigation of the links between MDD and comorbid GAD, HRV, and cardiovascular disease is warranted.
  2 7,192 406
Cigarette smoking dose as a predictor of need for surgical intervention in patients with lumbar disk herniation
Shang-Lin Chiang, Chia-Huei Lin, Shih-Hung Tsai, Shin-Tsu Chang, Shiou-Ping Lin, Shou-Min Ni, Shun-Hwa Wei, Yung-Tsan Wu, Fu-Huang Lin, Liang-Cheng Chen
January-February 2014, 34(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129387  
Purpose: Numerous studies have investigated the significant relationship between sciatic pain, radiating lower back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome or other disk disorders and cigarette smoking; however, only few reports have demonstrated the relationship between the total smoking dose and lumbar disk herniation (LDH), a cause of lower back or sciatic pain. Furthermore, the relationship between total cigarette consumption and the need of surgical intervention for LDH has not yet been investigated. Materials and Methods: This study included 391 patients with symptomatic LDH. The control group comprised 431 inpatients admitted for other medical or surgical problems. Their demographic data and level of cigarette consumption were obtained through a chart review. The association between lumbar surgical intervention and the clinical characteristics were investigated by multiple logistic regression analyses, with stepwise selection. Results: Compared with the nonsmokers, the smokers had a 1.5-fold increased risk of developing LDH (P = 0.01). An increased total smoking dose (pack-years) was a risk factor of undergoing lumbar surgical intervention among the LDH patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02; P = 0.03). Furthermore, the risk of undergoing lumbar surgical intervention increased to 1.83 times among LDH patients with a 6-10-year smoking history and to 2.16 times among those with >10-year smoking history (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: This study found that the total cigarette smoking dose was associated with LDH and was a risk factor for undergoing surgical intervention for LDH.
  1 3,199 218
CASE REPORTS
A chronic traumatic tracheoesophageal fistula functioning as a respirator and a phonator simultaneously
Wan-Fu Su, Shao-Cheng Liu, Hui-Ming Feng, Li-Chun Hsiao, Chi-Wen Kao
January-February 2014, 34(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129392  
Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an infrequent complication of prolonged intubation or chest blunt injury. Controversy exists as to whether this should be repaired in a single-stage or in a two-stage procedure. To understand the advantage of one-stage surgery on this complicated injury, and vocalization after reconstruction, we will present a case that had a chronic traumatic TEF, compounded with total laryngotracheal obstruction and an existing unilateral vocal fixation. A 28-year-old female sustained a laryngotracheal injury in a car accident eight years ago and underwent a temporary laryngotracheal stent placement after reconstructive surgery, for one year, in another hospital. Relapsing aspiration pneumonia had developed since then. Video laryngoscopy revealed a mobile right vocal fold, a completely obstructed glottic lumen by granulomatous tissue, and a TEF. This chronic fistula functioned as a respirator without any assistance from the ventilator tube placement, as also a phonator, offering a socially acceptable voice simultaneously, as the larynges were totally obstructed by the scarring granulation tissue. This surrogate glottis enabled survival without a tracheostoma and challenged the justification of any further reconstruction in this patient. Eventually, TEF repair and reconstruction of the laryngotracheal airway were conducted in one stage. Subsequently, the insufficient glottis was corrected by medialized laryngoplasty, to complete the entire reconstruction work.
  - 2,719 162
Chronological emergence of a class a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes in Taiwan
Zheng-Yi Huang, Jun-Ren Sun, Sheng-Ting Hsu, Ching-Mei Yu, Cherng-Lih Perng, Tzong-Shi Chiueh
January-February 2014, 34(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129394  
This study reports the case of a 77-year-old, long-term, bedridden patient, with a nosocomial wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogense). The isolate produced an Ambler-class A carbapenemase, which was demonstrated by the Modified Hodge test (MHT) and a confirmatory inhibition test. However, no known carbapenemase genes were discovered in this isolate by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with specific primers. New carbapenemase or other resistant mechanisms could be explored from the isolate of carbapenem-resistant E. aerogense, according to the revised criteria (CLSI, 2012).
  - 3,343 195
Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis presented as a parotid abscess within a Warthin's tumor: Case report and review of literature
Yu-Hsuan Lin, Kuo-Ping Chang, Sau-Tung Chu
January-February 2014, 34(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129395  
Most suppurative parotid abscesses are caused by bacterial infection via the Stensen's duct. Formation of a unilateral parotid abscess secondary to Salmonella enterocolitis seldom occurs, and cases arising in the setting of a previous existing parotid tumor have rarely been described to date. This study presents a 71-year-old male patient having a parotid abscess. This was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in an apparently immunocompetent adult with an inherent parotid tumor. The pathology is consistent with a Warthin's tumor with infarction. By integrating surgical and antimicrobial drug therapy, the disease responded well to treatment. Despite an increasing incidence of extraintestinal salmonellosis in the past decades, a clinical practitioner must maintain a high index of suspicion for rare locations, such as the parotid gland, after uncomplicated bacteremia accompanying enterocolitis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary for the prevention of lethal complications.
  - 2,851 165
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Is subcutaneous local anesthesia necessary in ultrasound-guided hip magnetic resonance arthrography?
Yi-Chih Hsu, Yu-Cheng Wu, Hao-Lun Kao, Hsian He Hsu, Wei-Chou Chang, Hung Wen Kao, Kai-Hsiung Ko, Guo-Shu Huang
January-February 2014, 34(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129388  
Background: Ultrasound (US)-guided injection is increasingly used for magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the hip. There is no information regarding the utility of anesthetizing the needle path before joint puncture. Thus, the aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the efficacy of the technique and discomfort in patients undergoing US-guided arthrography of the hip using a fixed guide, with or without the use of subcutaneous local anesthesia. Materials And Methods: Eighty-two patients underwent anterior US-guided MR arthrography of the hip, of whom 33 had received anesthesia and 49 had not; these patients were compared for differences in the efficacy of arthrography and the subsequent complications. They were also asked to report the intensity of discomfort using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: Hip joint arthrography was successful in all cases with no complications. There were no significant differences between the anesthetized and non-anesthetized groups in terms of sex, age, body mass index, side, success rate on first attempt, and extra-articular contrast leakage on MR (P > 0.05). The mean VAS scores were 23.3 (median 25.0; SD 13.3) in anesthetized patients versus 23.6 (median 20.0; SD 19.2) in those who were not anesthetized (P = 0.12, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion: Routine local anesthesia is possibly unnecessary in US-guided MR arthrography of the hip using a fixed guide.
  - 2,694 146
Liver cirrhosis is a risk factor of repeat acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer in intensive care unit patients
Pi-Kai Chang, Chih-Hong Kao, Chang-Chieh Wu, Chia-Cheng Lee, Tsai-Yu Lee, Shu-Wen Jao, Cheng-Wen Hsiao
January-February 2014, 34(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129390  
Background: Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU) can be found in patients with severe comorbid illness, who are bedridden for a long time. Per anal suturing is a quick and feasible treatment. However, recurrent bleeding occurs frequently after suture ligation of a bleeder and can be life-threatening. However, the risk factor for recurrent bleeding is not well known. Our study tries to clarify the risk factor of repeat AHRU in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2009, the medical records of 32 patients, who were admitted to the ICU of the Tri-Service General Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Taiwan, and who underwent per anal suturing of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 96 patients who received emergency treatment for acute massive hematochezia, 32 patients were diagnosed with AHRU. Eight (25%) patients had recurrent bleeding following suture ligation of AHRU and underwent a reoperation; no patient had recurrent bleeding after the second operation. The duration from the first hematochezia attack to surgery (P = 0.04), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002), and coagulopathy (P = 0.01) were the risk factors of recurrent bleeding after suture ligation of a bleeder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that liver cirrhosis (OR = 37.77, P = 0.014) was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Conclusion: AHRU could be a major cause of acute massive hematochezia in patients with severe illness. Our data showed that per anal suturing could quickly and effectively control bleeding. We found that liver cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Therefore, treatment of a liver cirrhosis patient with AHUR should be more aggressive, such as, early detection and proper suture ligation.
  - 3,258 171
Clinical presentation and treatment of primary and secondary paranasal mucoceles
Jih-Chin Lee, Keng-Kuang Tsai, Hsin-Chien Chen, Zheng-Ping Shih, Wen-Sen Lai, Yueng-Hsiang Chu, Chih-Hung Wang, Yaoh-Shiang Lin
January-February 2014, 34(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/1011-4564.129384  
Background: This retrospective study was conducted to describe and compare the clinical characteristics of primary mucoceles occurring in patients without a previous history of sinus surgery, the cause of mucoceles and secondary mucoceles resulting as a complication following endoscopic sinus surgery, and the Caldwell-Luc operation. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed 18 cases of primary mucoceles and 21 cases of secondary mucoceles, who were diagnosed and had received surgical intervention between 1995 and 2012. Results: The most common presenting symptoms in primary mucoceles were: Visual disturbance (18.6%), nasal obstruction (12.5%), and headache (12.5%). In secondary mucoceles, the most common symptoms were: Nasal obstruction (27.5%), rhinorrhea (15%), and postnasal drip (12.5%). The most common sites of origin for primary mucoceles were the ethmoid sinus (31.5%) and sphenoid sinus (31.5%). In secondary mucoceles, the maxillary sinus was the most common site of origin (40.7%), followed by the ethmoid sinus (29.6%). All patients with secondary mucoceles had a history of sinus surgery. Conclusions: Mucoceles are benign lesions of the paranasal sinus. Cases of secondary mucoceles that occur following sinus endoscopic surgery develop more frequently in the ethmoid sinus compared to those following the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Endoscopic intranasal surgery of mucoceles is a reliable therapeutic measure with a favorable long-term outcome.
  - 2,437 166
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