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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| March-April  | Volume 36 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 2, 2016

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Determination of virulence factors and biofilm formation among isolates of vulvovaginal candidiasis
Tapan Majumdar, Jhinuk Basu Mullick, Raunak Bir, Jayanta Roy, Samir Kumar Sil
March-April 2016, 36(2):53-58
Context: Under morphogenesis-inducing conditions, Candida spp. begins to undergo yeast-to-hypha switch. This shift from commensal to pathogenic state is dependent on several virulence factors. Aim: To find out whether the isolated Candida spp. were pathogens causing vulvovaginal candidiasis or mere bystanders. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted on 275 symptomatic hospital patients in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. Subjects and Methods: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation. To test for virulence factors, assays for adherence, plasma coagulase, phospholipase, lipase, protease, hemolysin, and biofilm formation were carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: Significance between two groups was compared using one-way analysis of variance along with Tukey test, and Chi-square 2 × 2 contingency table at 95% confidence interval. Results: Fifty-six Candida spp. could be isolated in the study which was used for further virulence tests. One hundred percent of isolates expressed adherence. Among other virulence factors, maximum virulence 25 (45%) was shown through protease production. Hemolysin production and biofilm formation were the second most 22 (39%) expressed virulence factors. In a comparison of virulence factors between biofilm-forming isolates and planktonic cells, significant difference was seen for plasma coagulase and hemolysin production. Conclusions: All the isolates expressed one or more virulence factors. Adherence was expressed in all isolates but highest number was observed for Candida albicans. Furthermore, C. albicans strain number was highest for protease, hemolysin and coagulase expression and biofilm formation. Candida krusei isolates were the least in number for expressing any of the virulence factors. Significantly higher number of biofilm forming isolates produced hemolysin and coagulase in comparison to planktonic cells.
  5 2,856 306
Facial biometrics of Yorubas of Nigeria using Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm
Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu
March-April 2016, 36(2):39-45
Background: Forensic anthropology deals with the establishment of human identity using genetics, biometrics, and face recognition technology. This study aims to compute facial biometrics of Yorubas of Osun State of Nigeria using a novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm. Materials and Methods: Three hundred Yorubas of Osun State (150 males and 150 females, aged 15–33 years) were selected as subjects for the study with informed consents and when established as Yorubas by parents and grandparents. Height, body weight, and facial biometrics (evaluated on three-dimensional [3D] facial photographs) were measured on all subjects. The novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm for forensic face recognition was developed using the modified row method of computer programming. Facial width, total face height, short forehead height, long forehead height, upper face height, nasal bridge length, nose height, morphological face height, and lower face height computed from readings of the Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm were analyzed using z-test (P ≤ 0.05) of 2010 Microsoft Excel statistical software. Results: Statistical analyzes of facial measurements showed nonsignificant higher mean values (P > 0.05) in Yoruba males compared to females. Yoruba males and females have the leptoprosopic face type based on classifications of face types from facial indices. Conclusions: Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm can be employed for computing anthropometric, forensic, diagnostic, or any other measurements on 2D and 3D images, and data computed from its readings can be converted to actual or life sizes as obtained in 1D measurements. Furthermore, Yoruba males and females have the leptoprosopic face type.
  2 5,707 238
A unique case of bifid left testicular artery having its anomalous high origin from renal artery
Ashwini P Aithal, Naveen Kumar, Swamy S Ravindra, Jyothsna Patil
March-April 2016, 36(2):75-77
The testicular arteries are known to originate from the ventrolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta and descend obliquely to the pelvic cavity and supply the testis. An anatomical description of an uncommon variation of the left testicular artery is presented in this case report, highlighting its clinical implications. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, we found that the left testicular artery was bifid and it was arising from the left renal artery. After its origin, it then coursed behind the left renal vein, passed between the left testicular vein and left ureter and at the lower pole of the left kidney, this bifid testicular artery joined to form a single testicular artery which thereafter presented a normal course. Anatomy of the testicular artery has been studied in detail because of its importance in testicular physiology, as well as its significance in testicular and renal surgery. This vascular variation shows a major significance in renal surgery, partial or total nephrectomy, and renal transplant. In addition, this anatomical variation enhances the importance of arteriography or the Doppler ultrasound examination of the renal hilum before surgeries.
  1 1,650 75
The serotonin transporter gene (triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) may associate with male depression in Han Chinese population
Pei-Shen Ho, Chih-Lun Chen, Chuan-Chia Chang, Hsin-An Chang, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chih-Sung Liang, Che-Hung Yen, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Chun-Long Lin, Ru-Band Lu, Mei-Chen Shih, San-Yuan Huang
March-April 2016, 36(2):59-67
Background: Pharmacological, neurobehavioral, and therapeutic evidence have implicated serotonin in the pathogenesis of depression. There are conflicting reports on the association of genetic variants of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) with major depressive disorder. The 5-HTTLPR is thought to have three primary allelic variants (rs25531): LA, LG, and S. The present study examined whether major depression was associated with tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population. Materials and Methods: Bi-allelic and tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms were assessed in 305 patients with major depressive disorder (MD) and 313 unrelated healthy control subjects. In addition, to reduce clinical heterogeneity, subtype analyses were performed for clinically important variables, including family history of major affective disorder, age at onset, and severity of MD. Results: The bi-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was not associated with MD and its clinical subgroups. However, the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was associated with major depression and with specific subgroups. In particular, in male subjects, patients with a low expressing genotype (S'/S') were at higher risk for MD than those with high expressing genotypes (S'/L' and L'/L'). This positive association was only observed in the subgroups of late-onset and moderate severity MD. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism might be a risk factor for susceptibility to either MD or its clinical subtypes in the Han Chinese male population but not in the female population. However, these results should be validated in a larger patient population that includes different ethnic samples or subdiagnosis groups.
  1 3,922 180
Zolpidem increased cancer risk in patients with sleep disorder: A 3-year follow-up study
Sheng-Chiao Lin, Yu-Chieh Su, Yung-Sung Huang, Ching-Chih Lee
March-April 2016, 36(2):68-74
Background: Zolpidem has been increasingly used in patients with sleep disorder due to its minimal respiratory depressor effects and short half-life. Materials and Methods: Recent case reports indicate that zolpidem usage may be associated with increased cancer mortality. This study aimed to determine the impact of zolpidem usage on the risk of incident cancer events in sleep disorder patients over a 3-year follow-up. Of the 6924 subjects diagnosed with sleep disorder in 2004, 1728 had used zolpidem. A Cox proportional hazard model was performed to estimate 3-year cancer event-free survival rates for patients using zolpidem and those not using it, after adjusting for confounding and risk factors. Results: At the end of follow-up, 56 patients had incident cancers, 26 (1.5%) who used zolpidem, and 30 (0.6%) who did not. After adjustments for gender, age, comorbidities, and other medications, patients using zolpidem had a 1.75 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–3) greater risk of cancer events than those not using zolpidem during the 3-year follow-up. Greater mean daily dose and longer use were associated with increased risk. Among patients with sleep disorder, mean daily dose >10 mg and length of drug use >2 months was associated with 3.74 times greater risk (95% CI, 1.42–9.83; P = 0.008) of incident cancer events. Conclusions: In this study, zolpidem use increased cancer events risk in sleep disorder patients. Risks and benefits of chronic zolpidem usage should be explained to sleep disorder patients, and long-term use should be monitored.
  1 10,373 297
An unusual case of primary prostatic extragastrointestinal stromal tumor
Chao-Feng Chang, Liang-Wei Wen, Sheng-Tang Wu, Ching-Liang Ho
March-April 2016, 36(2):78-80
Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) originate from several anatomic sites, except the digestive system. We describe an early prostatic EGIST case with lower urinary tract symptoms and a palpable lesion on digital examination. The patient received transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate, and the pathological finding demonstrated positive staining for DOG-1 and CD117. Treatment included only imatinib, which shrank the tumor and led to complete remission. Because of enlarged prostate volume with tumor progression, the initial common manifestations are lower urinary tract symptoms. Surgical resection is the recommended management, particularly in bulky lesions. However, imatinib still plays an important role in long-term therapy. We also review the associated reported cases of prostatic EGISTs.
  - 1,403 117
Neonate with omphalocele and dextrocardia: Anaesthetic goals and challenges
Vishal Krishna Pai, Mridul Dhar, Anil Prasad Singh, Atchya Arun Kumar
March-April 2016, 36(2):81-83
Omphalocele and gastroschisis are the two common congenital malformations of the anterior abdominal wall. Omphalocele can be associated with other congenital anomalies such as cardiac anomalies. Association of omphalocele with dextrocardia has been reported in few literatures previously. We describe here such a rare association of omphalocele, dextrocardia with patent ductus arteriosus with a brief review on the anesthetic challenges in the perioperative period.
  - 2,108 139
Cytogenetic study of down syndrome in Algeria: Report and review
Fayza Belmokhtar, Rahma Belmokhtar, Ahmed Kerfouf
March-April 2016, 36(2):46-52
Background: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common type of chromosomal trisomy found in newborn. It is associated with mental retardation and characteristic facial features. A clinical diagnosis of DS may be unconfirmed in one-third of cases. Objective: This study was conducted to confirm the clinical diagnosis of suspected cases with DS by a cytogenetic analysis and to evaluate several risk factors associated with trisomy 21 in a group of patients from West region of Algeria, Tlemcen. Materials and Methods: Karyotype analysis was carried out for 22 patients with the clinical diagnosis of DS. GTG-band and RTG-band have been made according to the standard protocols. Results: Among the 22 cases with DS, free trisomy 21 was presented in 20 cases (91%). One case (4.5%) had translocation DS. One other case had mosaic DS. There was an excess of male than female; sex ratio was 1.75:1. The mean maternal age at birth of the affected children was 36.27 ± 7.59 years. It was significantly higher than this of mothers of nontrisomic children (27.83 ± 6.34 years; P = 0.0002). Higher parity was an important risk factor associated with trisomy 21, 81% of affected children were of last or second last birth order. Paternal age and consanguinity had no effect. Conclusion: The identification of specific types of chromosomal abnormalities in DS children is very significant. It greatly helped in the management of these children and to make aware the affected families about the recurrence risk and the options available.
  - 3,353 178