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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 53-58

Determination of virulence factors and biofilm formation among isolates of vulvovaginal candidiasis

1 Department of Microbiology, Agartala Government Medical College, Agartala, Tripura, India
2 Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Agartala, Tripura, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Agartala Government Medical College, Agartala, Tripura, India

Correspondence Address:
Tapan Majumdar
Department of Microbiology, Agartala Government Medical College, Kunjavan, Agartala - 799006, Tripura
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1011-4564.181521

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Context: Under morphogenesis-inducing conditions, Candida spp. begins to undergo yeast-to-hypha switch. This shift from commensal to pathogenic state is dependent on several virulence factors. Aim: To find out whether the isolated Candida spp. were pathogens causing vulvovaginal candidiasis or mere bystanders. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted on 275 symptomatic hospital patients in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. Subjects and Methods: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation. To test for virulence factors, assays for adherence, plasma coagulase, phospholipase, lipase, protease, hemolysin, and biofilm formation were carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: Significance between two groups was compared using one-way analysis of variance along with Tukey test, and Chi-square 2 × 2 contingency table at 95% confidence interval. Results: Fifty-six Candida spp. could be isolated in the study which was used for further virulence tests. One hundred percent of isolates expressed adherence. Among other virulence factors, maximum virulence 25 (45%) was shown through protease production. Hemolysin production and biofilm formation were the second most 22 (39%) expressed virulence factors. In a comparison of virulence factors between biofilm-forming isolates and planktonic cells, significant difference was seen for plasma coagulase and hemolysin production. Conclusions: All the isolates expressed one or more virulence factors. Adherence was expressed in all isolates but highest number was observed for Candida albicans. Furthermore, C. albicans strain number was highest for protease, hemolysin and coagulase expression and biofilm formation. Candida krusei isolates were the least in number for expressing any of the virulence factors. Significantly higher number of biofilm forming isolates produced hemolysin and coagulase in comparison to planktonic cells.

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